I’m Kate Dewhirst.

I’m a lawyer who writes about legal issues affecting healthcare in Canada

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What are the 3 legal questions every clinician should know how to answer?

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If you are a practicing clinician (nurse, doctor, dentist, midwife, psychologist, OT, PT, social worker etc.) there are three legal questions you should be able to answer:

  1. What laws apply to you?
  2. Who makes treatment and information decisions for your patients?
  3. What are your patients’ privacy rights?

I recently spoke at the Hamilton Health Sciences “Ethics and Advocacy” day for their psychologists – and we went through those questions.  Here are some highlights that are relevant to those of you practicing in Ontario:


There are more than 40 laws that apply in Ontario to health care facilities and clinical teams. Every clinician in Ontario needs to know about the following six laws:

  1. Health Care Consent Act
  2. Personal Health Information Protection Act
  3. Regulated Health Professions Act and profession specific laws
  4. Child and Family Services Act
  5. Human Rights Code
  6. Substitute Decisions Act

If you work in mental health, you may also need to know about the Mental Health Act, Criminal Code, Youth Criminal Justice Act.

Treatment and Information Decisions

There is no age of consent in Ontario to make treatment or information (privacy) decisions. That comes as a surprise to most parents and even to some clinicians.

All patients are presumed to be capable to make their own treatment and information decisions. But if there is a question of capacity – there is a two-part test every clinician should know:

  1. Is the individual ABLE to understand the information that is relevant to making a decision about the treatment (or information decision) AND
  2. Is the individual ABLE to appreciate the reasonably foreseeable consequences of the decision or lack of decision.

Capable patients make their own treatment and information decisions.  Incapable patients have substitute decision-makers who make their decisions.

For privacy decisions, there is also a nuance involving children under the age of 16.  Stay with me – this gets a bit tricky.  Parents can ALSO consent to the collection, use and disclosure of information about their children so long as the information relates to treatment or counseling for which the child did not make their own decision. So parents would be allowed to consent to release vaccination records when the child was a baby but would not be allowed to make decisions about information relating to treatment for drug use or smoking cessation or sexual health or counseling for which a child made his/her own decisions. And if there is a dispute about an information decision between a parent and a capable child under the age of 16, the capable child’s wishes prevail.


Sure, privacy gets complicated.  But there are four patient rights every clinician should know:

Subject to some exceptions, patients have a right to:

  1. Consent (or withhold or withdraw consent) to the collection, use or disclosure of their personal health information (PHI)
  2. Access a record of their own PHI (regardless of where you have documented that information beyond the traditional health record – such as in emails, transfer notes,  handwritten notes, schedules etc.)
  3. Ask for a correction to a record of PHI if it is inaccurate or incomplete for the purpose for which you hold that information
  4. “Lock” PHI from health care providers for health care purposes (“lockbox”)

Keep reading this blog for more information about the laws that apply to you.

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Some of Kate’s recent and upcoming events

Team Privacy Training Events
February 12, 19, 26, 27, Mar 2, 9, 11, 24, 27

For Primary Care clinics, Hospitals, Community Agencies and Children’s Aid

Kate trains health professionals from many more health care organizations how being privacy-respectful can improve therapeutic relationships. More details...

Speaking event March 25, 2020

Osgoode Professional Development – Health Law Certificate

Kate joins the faculty for this training event. More details...

Primary care webinars: Employment Law Update & Legal Issues for EDs and Board members

Part of Kate’s monthly webinar series.

Our March webinar is on questions to ask your insurer and the April program is on changes to pregnant employees' positions.
Full details of the 2020 webinar series and registration here.

Health Privacy Officer training
April 28, 2020

For Privacy Officers within healthcare organisations.

This course focuses on how to become a more confident privacy officer and gives you the tools to document your privacy program. Full details and registration here...

Osgoode Health Privacy training
January 20 & 27 and February 3,10 & 18, 2020

Kate is the program chair for the Osgoode Certificate in Privacy in Healthcare.

This program explores the range of privacy interests that must be protected in the day-to-day treatment of patients, the development of information systems and the creation of institutional policies. More details...

Free healthcare privacy webinar - ask me anything!
March 4 (cancelled) but back April 1

Free webinars - advance registration needed

Whether you're an experienced privacy officer or new in the field, pick Kate’s brain for free for an hour, in this live webinar. No charge, but you’ll need to register in advance.

Kate Dewhirst Health Law

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